**Principal Investigator:** Francesco Knechtli, Bergische Universität Wuppertal

**HPC Platform used:** SuperMUC and SuperMUC-NG of LRZ

**Local Project ID:** pn56fo

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions. It explains how quarks and gluons form the composite particles called hadrons which are observed in nature. Hadrons can be studied by means of computer simulations of QCD discretized on a Euclidean lattice. This project focuses on hadrons formed by heavy quarks. The question addressed is the relevance of including virtual charm-quark effects in lattice QCD simulations. This dynamics is challenging since it requires small values of the lattice spacing for reliable extrapolations to zero lattice spacing. It is found that its effects are at the sub-percent level even for quantities like the decay constants of charmonium at an energy scale of about half of the proton mass.